GXP

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Pharmaceuticals were first identified to pose environmental risks in the 1990s, and since then the number of available monitoring and effect studies has increased steadily. Pharmaceuticals are present in the environment as a consequence of patient use, drug production and formulation, and improper disposal (Boxall et al., 2012). Today, several hundred active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have been found in sewage water, surface water, groundwater, soil, air, or biota in concentrations from sub-ng/L to more than μg/L (BIO Intelligence Service, 2013; Kümmerer, 2009; Küster and Adler,...

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